Sun, 09/12/2010 - 06:19 | by admin
VUR is graded according to severity from grade I (mild) to grade V (severe). The grade of reflux is determined by voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG).1
VUR can develop before birth (prenatally) if the anatomy of the bladder and ureters does not form sufficiently to control the direction of flow of the urine. Alternatively, VUR can develop after birth as the child grows secondary to bladder dysfunction, obstruction in lower urinary tract and in children with neurogenic bladder dysfunction.
Often the presence of VUR is diagnosed only once the child has suffered urinary tract infections (UTIs). In severe cases, this can mean that the kidneys are already damaged to some extent on diagnosis.
- Jacobson SH, Hansson S, Jakobsson B.Vesico-ureteric reflux: occurrence and long-term risks. Acta Paediatr Suppl 1999; 88: 22-30.